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Take a detailed look at "What is IoT and Scenario Applications of IoT


preamble

The rapid development of modern technology has brought convenience to people's lives on the one hand; on the other hand, it has also given people more and more impact on their work and life. The next high-tech coming from the Internet of Things, artificial intelligence, big data, cloud computing, smart hardware, etc. will further disrupt people's traditional way of living and working, so it is necessary for us to know and understand them.

In seven articles, the author will share with the headers to discuss the important technological innovations that have occurred during the development of the Internet, this article focuses on the "Internet of Things".

Internet of Things (IoT)

1.Internet of Things (IoT, Internet of Things) definition.

(a) The concept of the Internet of Things first appeared in Bill Gates' 1995 book, The Way of the Future, in which Bill Gates had already mentioned the concept of Internet of Things.

Definition: i.e. information sensing through radio frequency identification (RFID), infrared sensors, global positioning systems, laser scanners, gas sensors, etc.

A network of devices that connects any item to the Internet for information exchange and communication according to an agreed protocol for intelligent identification, location, tracking, monitoring and management.

In short, the Internet of Things is the "Internet of connected things".

2.Links and differences between the Internet of Things and the Internet.

(a) The Internet is the foundation of the Internet of Things; the Internet of Things is an extension of the Internet.

Internet of Things (IoT)The essential foundation and core of the technology remains the Internet, Integration with the Internet through various wired and wireless networks, Transmitting information about objects accurately and in real time。

3. Internet of Things (IoT) The three characteristics of having:

Total awareness: i.e. access to information about objects at any time and from anywhere using RFID, sensors, QR codes, etc.

Intelligent processing: using various intelligent computing technologies, such as cloud computing and fuzzy recognition, to analyze and process massive amounts of data and information and implement intelligent control of objects.

Reliable delivery: real-time and accurate delivery of information about objects through the integration of various telecommunications networks with the Internet.

4.Architecture of the Internet of Things.

At present, there is no widely agreed architecture for IoT, but we can divide IoT into a three-layer structure based on its process of information sensing, transmission and processing, i.e., sensing layer, network layer and application layer, as shown in Fig.

5.IoT assistive technologies.

At its core are sensors and radio frequency communication (RFID). The former is used for perception and measurement, the latter for identification and localization.

5.1. Sensors.

Sensors, the "five senses" of the Internet of Things, are devices used to collect various types of information and convert them into specific signals, which can collect information such as identity, motion status, geographic location, posture, pressure, temperature, humidity, light, sound, smell, etc.

A sensor is a detection device that senses the information being measured and can transform the sensed information, according to certain laws, into an electrical signal or its

other required forms of information output to meet the requirements for transmission, processing, storage, display, recording and control of information.

5.2. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID).

Definition: Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a wireless communication technology that identifies a specific target and reads and writes related data through radio signals without the need to establish mechanical or optical contact between the identification system and the specific target.

Benefits: The most important benefit is non-contact identification, which can read tags through snow, fog, ice, paint, dirt and harsh environments where barcodes are not available, and is extremely fast, less than 100 milliseconds in most cases. That is, by actively identifying objects that come within the magnetic field recognition range to do

Handle accordingly. RFID is not a sensor; it identifies markers primarily by the unique ID number corresponding to the tag.

Application Scenario.

Ø Supply chain/logistics applications.

RFID technology, warehouse goods distribution, inbound, outbound, moving, inventory count and other data in various operational aspects of automated data collection, to ensure the speed and accuracy of data input in all aspects of logistics and supply chain management, to ensure that enterprises have timely and accurate inventory and in-transit real data, reasonable to maintain and control inventory.

Through the RFID electronic tag on the material, it can realize the rapid automatic recognition of the material and accurately obtain the relevant information of the product at any time, such as the material type, supplier, supply time, expiration date, stock quantity, etc.

The application of RFID technology can achieve real-time monitoring of all aspects of materials from incoming, outgoing, inventory, moving, etc. Not only can it greatly improve the degree of automation, but it can also significantly reduce the error rate, thus significantly improving the transparency of logistics warehouse management and management efficiency;

RFID in logistics and warehouse management applications help companies to reduce costs and achieve a competitive advantage, information flow is conducive to control and reduce inventory, and reduce costs (including labor costs), so that companies in the management of storage materials more efficient, accurate, scientific.

Ø Retail scenario applications.

The application of RFID makes retailers more intelligent, information and automation in the management of these parts, freeing people from a large number of mechanical repetitive tasks on a daily basis, avoiding over-reliance on manual labor while greatly enhancing the efficiency of the daily management operations of retail enterprises

Supply chain management: This was the first use of RFID in retail and is one of the areas where RFID is currently being used the most.

Inventory management: The main content of RFID application includes the use of fixed or mobile readers to scan the goods in and out of the warehouse and on the warehouse shelves, improve the efficiency of goods in and out, picking, inventory, improve the visibility of inventory to the upstream suppliers to facilitate timely delivery, and connect with the store shelves automatic replenishment system, timely replenishment to optimize inventory, etc. ;

In-store merchandise management: In this area, most retail stores are currently using RFID for items that are vulnerable to theft or valuable;

Customer Management: RFID is mainly used for self-checkout and improving the in-store shopping experience of customers;

Security management: general application in the theft and loss of goods, followed by the use of RFID identification code instead of the original password to control the use of IT equipment or access rights to certain important departments.

6. Internet of Things (IoT) Application Scenario.

6.1. Applications in agriculture.

Agricultural standardized production monitoring: is the most critical in agricultural production, such as temperature, humidity, carbon dioxide content, soil moisture content and other data information real-time collection, real-time support a variety of data.

Animal identification traceability: to realize the integration of the whole process of monitoring each link, to achieve the effective combination of animal breeding, epidemic prevention, quarantine, and supervision, and to carry out rapid and accurate traceability and processing of animal epidemics and animal product safety events.

Hydrological monitoring: including traditional near-shore pollution monitoring, ground-based online detection, satellite remote sensing and artificial measurement as a whole, providing a unified platform for data collection, data transmission, data analysis and data release for water quality monitoring, and providing an experimental and verification pathway for lake observation and research on the mechanism of disaster formation.

6.2. Applications in industry.

Elevator Security Management System: The system captures the normal operation of the elevator through sensors installed on the periphery of the elevator、 surpass、 squat down and keep a low profile、 power outage、 Data on persons, etc., and transmits the data via the wireless transmission module to the Internet of Things (IoT) The business platform of。

Transmission and distribution equipment monitoring and remote meter reading: Based on mobile communication network, it realizes real-time collection of electric power information, current and voltage information, power supply quality information and on-site metering device status information of all power supply points and power receiving points, as well as remote control of electricity consumption load.

Enterprise card: based on RFID-SIM card, access control, attendance and consumption management system for small, medium and large enterprises and institutions; campus card and student information management system, etc.

6.3. Applications in the service industry.

Personal health care: different sensors can be installed on the person's body to monitor the person's health parameters and transmit them in real time to the relevant health care center, which alerts the health care center via mobile phone for medical checkups if there are any abnormalities.

Smart home: based on computer technology and network technology, including all kinds of consumer electronics, communication products, information appliances and smart home, etc., to complete the home appliance control and home security functions.

Intelligent logistics: Through the data transmission channel provided by GPRS/3G network, it realizes the communication between logistics vehicle terminals and the dispatching center of logistics companies, realizes remote vehicle dispatching, and automates cargo warehouse management.

Mobile e-commerce: enabling mobile payments, mobile ticketing, vending, etc.

Airport intrusion prevention: laying down sensing joints, covering the ground, fencing and low altitude detection to prevent intrusions such as overtaking, smuggling and terrorist attacks by people.

6.4. Applications in public utilities.

Intelligent traffic: through the positioning system, monitoring system, you can view the vehicle operation status, pay attention to the estimated arrival time of vehicles and congestion status.

Safe cities: use of surveillance probes for intelligent analysis of image sensitivity and interaction with 110, 119, 112, etc..

Urban management: Using geocoding technology to achieve classification and itemized management of urban components, it can achieve precise location of urban management problems.

Environmental monitoring: Various environmental monitoring information collected by traditional sensors is transmitted to the monitoring center through wireless transmission equipment for real-time monitoring and rapid response.

Health care: telemedicine, drug inquiries, health supervision, emergency and visitation video surveillance.


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