Taoist Thought and Artificial Intelligence
Qiu Lin, a native of Ganzhou, Jiangxi Province, is in class 1708 at the School of Computer and Information Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, majoring in computer technology and science, with main interests in computers, Chinese culture and secondary culture.
artificial intelligence (AI)
artificial intelligence (AI)It can be divided by genre into： structural school (of thought)， Research based on brain neuroscience， is an attempt to mimic the human cerebral cortex by structuring large-scale nonlinear artificial neurons； functionalist school， The use of advanced computer technology to simulate the functions of the human brain mind； behavioral school (of thought)， spur- Patterns of response mimic human behavior。 This also reflects our modern scientific approach to research， mechanics， That is, the idea of divide and conquer。
Under these different genres, AI in different directions emerged.
The first is a study of artificial neural networks based on structural simulation。 this kind (of) artificial intelligence (AI) of researchers trying to build artificial neural networks to mimic the ability of the human mind。 Artificial neural networks that can mimic the conditioned reflexes of higher animals have been successfully designed using simple networks of a few neurons， Demonstrating the tantalizing promise of artificial neural networks。
However, research on artificial neural networks also faces serious challenges: on the one hand, in order to simulate the intelligence of an effective human mind, it is necessary to create artificial neural networks of a complexity close to that of the human brain neocortex, which is a complex network of 1011 neurons, each of which is a nonlinear processing unit and each of which forms dynamic connections with 103-4 other neurons. The biological nervous system operates at 100 Hz, so the neocortical neural network can then have 1016 to 17 connections/s. This means that there are huge technical difficulties in manufacturing.
On the other hand, if the complexity of artificial neural networks is reduced to the level allowed by industrial manufacturing technology, the intelligence of such relatively simple artificial neural networks is again greatly degraded.
The greater difficulty also lies in the fact that, even with advances in science and technology, one can create artificial neural networks as complex (or even more complex) than the neocortex of the human brain. However, because little is known, even mysteriously, about the "learning mechanisms" of neural networks in the neocortex of the brain, artificial neural networks, which are highly complex in structure, do not know what "learning mechanisms" they work according to, and it remains impossible to produce intelligence as fantastic as that of humans.
Then there is a study of physical notation based on functional simulation. This line of research is represented by an expert system - a system of computer programs that simulates the decision-making process of human experts based on the knowledge and experience provided by one or more experts in a field, and that simulates the decision-making process of human experts in order to solve complex problems that require human experts to handle them; in short, an expert system is a system of computer programs that simulates human experts in solving problems in the field.
Two examples： The world's first expert system wasDendral, He can help organic chemists to introduce unknown structures of organic molecules based on spectra。 one60 Females aged， Initially diagnosed by human physicians as acute myeloid leukemia， But after months of medical treatment for cancer, there was no improvement.， but (not)“ Watson (name)”——IBM of artificial intelligence (AI) After the platform reads the patient's genetic information， Gives“ secondary leukaemia” A more specific diagnosis of the condition， After adjusting the treatment， This woman was successfully discharged from the hospital after several months。
However, its design also faces a "knowledge bottleneck": expert systems need to have expert-level knowledge, but this knowledge is very difficult to obtain automatically and relies on the system designer to interview relevant domain experts directly. However, the system designer may not always be able to outline an accurate interview, and the domain expert may not always be able to articulate all the knowledge he needs to solve the problem. Not only that, even if the necessary knowledge is acquired, yet the current logical theory is not yet sufficient to support the representation of knowledge and the reasoning of knowledge. As a result, the core aspects of knowledge acquisition, representation, and reasoning face great difficulties.
Finally, perception based on behavioral simulation- Motion system research。1990 year，Brooks The research team led by announced the development of the successful A new type of robot， It can mimic the behavior of a hexapod Walk freely on uneven ground without tipping over。 This is based on“ Behavior simulation” of artificial intelligence (AI) Representative results of research lines。 This is based on“ Behavior simulation” of artificial intelligence (AI) Representative results of research lines。 Perception based on behavioural simulation－ The basic philosophy of action systems： One need not concern oneself with either the structure of the prototype intelligent system， Nor do you have to care about the knowledge needed to prototype intelligent systems， Just take the prototype intelligent system（ hexapod） Simulation of the form of stimulus received from the environment and its behavior in response to that stimulus， It is equivalent to simulating the intelligence of a prototype system。 This approach successfully bypasses the structural simulation methods of“ Structural complexity” stranded Difficult and functional simulation methods of“ knowledge bottleneck” obstruction， generate artificial intelligence (AI) The third intelligent simulation method studied。 nevertheless， It was also found that， Behavioural simulation methods are useful in evading the above“ structure” harmony“ knowledge-related” While the difficulties， He faces a new kind of difficulty himself， Here it is.： It can only simulate some shallow（ Some expressed through action） intelligent， It is difficult to simulate intelligence that is not expressed through external actions but interpreted through internal thought。
The three research methods of structural, functional, and behavioral simulations of artificial intelligence share the same goal of studying effective simulations for human intelligence. However, the three research approaches with the same goal are not synergistic, and there are occasional debates about "which is better and which is worse". This state of "different paths" but not "the same" cannot help but cause us to think deeply about AI research methods themselves. At this time, our Professor Yixin Zhong from Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications proposed that the research approach of AI should go towards holism.
Holism in Taoist Thought
Here we first introduce the study of Taoist holism by Caiying Han, PhD in philosophy (awarded by the Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences).
In the Western cultural tradition, the learning about nature and the learning about people, or the logic of the natural order and the logic of the human order, have always been distinct - the Pythagorean school, for example, being only an isolated phenomenon. Moreover, in the classical Greek period before the advent of Socrates, the interests of those "lovers of wisdom" were mostly focused on natural philosophical issues and were largely absent from ethical and moral issues. It was under Socrates' guidance that Athenian thinkers turned away from natural philosophy and towards exploring questions of human behavior and moral philosophy. By the time of Aristotle, the great master of the Greek classical period, the whole of "philosophy" was dismembered into separate "analytical" disciplines. It was not until the emergence of "quantum theory" and "process theory" in the twentieth century that holistic thinking was really revived in the Western world, but it was still confined to large disciplinary categories - such as quantum theory of physics and process theory of philosophy. In contrast, Laozi's philosophical doctrine of natural order and natural ethics, which stands at the height of a holistic cultural philosophy based on the Tao, has transcended the confines of time and space.
Laozi and Taoism are not only concerned with the state of individual human existence and the social relationship between man and man, but also with nature and the relationship between man and nature. In Laozi's conception of the world, man, as a part of nature, is constructed as one with nature; logically, the law of the Tao or the virtue of the Tao, which is naturally constructed as one, can be extended to the ethical discourse on the virtue and virtue of man only in the framework of the relationship between man and the natural world as one.
In general, Laozi's worldview and even natural ethics is a kind of "cultural holism" philosophy. "Lao Tzu's worldview is consistent in its relationship between nature and personnel as a unified whole." Whether it is human-based concern or people-based sentiment, whether it is human care or human concern, whether it is Laozi's philosophical vision or the way of constructing natural ethical thought, Laozi's words and sayings manifest a unique holistic cultural and philosophical thinking. Mr. Chen Gu Ying said, "There are two aspects of Laozi's thought that are most special: First, he first proposed the 'Tao', the basis for the existence of all things, and the theory of cosmogenesis and ontology constructed in his theory of Tao has been inherited and developed by philosophers in successive generations. The second is Laozi's systematic application of the dialectical method of thought of 'the opposite becoming the opposite', both of which have greatly opened up the horizons of humanity and deepened people's thinking. "
Let's try to look at it from a TCM perspective Holism in Taoist Thought Impact on us。 Chinese medicine founded on the inner unity of the universe and life， have always been known for“ oneness of heaven and humanity” as a basic principle， Although the question of whether Chinese medicine“ scientific knowledge” No definitive answer yet， But it's true.“ Bit out of Tai Chi， the road stands at one” The most typical manifestation of the ancient philosophy of。 Unlike Western medicine, which focuses on the material structure of the human body、 Different thinking on headache for headache and foot for footache， Chinese medicine sees the human body as a whole， Consider man in the natural universe， Belief in human life activities and the changes of the four seasons、 The alternation of day and night all reflect each other。“ simply put， Chinese medicine for headaches doesn't always look at the head， Maybe it's the ears.， Maybe it's the hands.， Even the feet.。”
holism saves the day artificial intelligence (AI)
Earlier we mentioned the traditional“ divide and conquer” Methodology is artificial intelligence (AI) The study provides structural simulations、 Functional simulation、 Three research methods for behavioural simulation， They have each achieved a number of important results， because of artificial intelligence (AI) Contribute to the development of research。
nevertheless， thanks to“ divide and conquer” The methodology fails to reveal the structural simulations it decomposes、 The intrinsic link between the three approaches to functional and behavioral simulation， therefore， All three approaches seek to develop independently of each other， formation artificial intelligence (AI) Study 3 kind of approach“ lit. the three legs of a tripod stand on top of each other” Decentralized pattern。 artificial intelligence (AI) The structural simulation of、 Functional simulation、 The objectives of the three research methods of behavioural simulation are the same， It's all about studying effective simulations of human intelligence。 nevertheless， Three research methods with the same goal but with a tripod between them， No synergy can be formed， Instead, from time to time, it happens“ who is better and who is worse” controversies。
According to Yixin Zhong， such“ different path” rather than“ homecoming” The state of affairs is prompting people to question the original artificial intelligence (AI) Research methodology， adapt for use for another purpose“ holism” mindset。
Using the "information ecology" methodology, it is possible to reveal the essential connection between the three approaches and to recognize that each of the three schools of thought is a special case of mechanistic AI in different knowledge conditions, thus forming a "symbiotic" relationship. This is a good example of how important the correct methodology is for the development of scientific research.
He proposed a "mechanistic" solution, which means that a systematic "intelligence-generating mechanism" can be established using the holistic ideas of Taoist thought, and the intelligence to solve the problem can be grown according to the specific problem given, and the structure and functions needed should be determined according to the needs of the intelligence-generating mechanism. Unite three unrelated sides into a whole new way of thinking.
The one that beat international Go master Lee Se-dol artificial intelligence (AI)AlphaGo The system confirms this“ a mixture of one another” Correctness of the strategy: It takes a structuralist artificial intelligence (AI) technical( Multi-layer neural networks for deep learning) with functionalism artificial intelligence (AI) technical( Game tree search techniques) Strategies for complementary integration, Gaining an unprecedented advantage, despiteAlphaGo adopted by“ a mixture of one another” The strategy is still only local and superficial。
artificial intelligence (AI) scientific research of the times， What is needed is exactly what the Chinese people are good at“ holism、 dialectic or Socratic method of debate”， An important task now is to put the Western way of mechanical materialism、 Mechanical reduction theory rules artificial intelligence (AI) Save it， Integrate previously broken results into a system， String the pearls into necklaces。 Zhong Yixin said“ This is the time when the Chinese nation plays an important role。”
"True Knowledge" Classic Book Club
Zhuangzi said, "There are real people and then there is true knowledge. " (Zhuangzi - The Great Master)
(a) The book club plans to read the classics with an open mind, reflect on existing knowledge and preconceptions, understand the original meaning of the classics, and "cultivate knowledge through tranquility" (Zhuangzi - Restorative Nature), on the basis of reference to ancient and modern commentaries.
In this process of seeking "true knowledge", focus on "to know to feed the quiet", with a view to personal physical and mental cultivation and life practice to provide thought resources and inspiration, and ultimately achieve knowledge and action complement each other, "wisdom and quiet cross-fertilization".
In the first stage, the proposed readings are: the Taoist classics Laozi and Zhuangzi; in the second stage, the Confucian classics (the Four Books and Five Sutras) and the Buddhist classics (the Vajra Sutra, the Tantras, etc.) are selected according to the interests of the participants.
While perusing Chinese classics， Invite teachers who are proficient in Xizhe to read Western classics（《 Exists with times》、《 on the lineage of morality》 wait）。
times : Thursday 19:00 - 21:30 (fortnightly)
sites Beijing Jiaotong University Siyuan West Building 712 / 706
We welcome your participation and interest in reading the classics together.
Arranged by Syki
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