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The Development of Artificial Intelligence and the Direction of Human Civilization


(Wang Tianen: Professor, Shanghai University)

Back in the 1950s, Turing, the father of computer science and artificial intelligence, predicted that the development of artificial intelligence would reach a singularity beyond human evolution. And the direction of human civilization after the Singularity, between the two extreme views that AI is only an aid to humans and that it will bring about the end of humanity, there is a more realistic possibility that deserves our deeper consideration. There is no reason to think that intelligent evolution cannot occur in ways other than biological, only that there may be no other intelligent evolution that can occur in the natural way that biological evolution does. Since machine intelligence can only evolve with the help of human intelligence and on the basis of human intelligence, it is a kind of secondary evolution of intelligence. Machine intelligence is created by human intelligence, and the evolution of machine intelligence begins when artificial intelligence can be designed to have a higher level of intelligence than itself. However, although this is a secondary evolution based on the evolution of biological intelligence, it is possible that machine intelligence is a higher level of intelligence than human intelligence in terms of the form of intelligence and the way it evolves.

Turing computers are disadvantaged in many ways compared to biological intelligence, but as technology advances, they will become increasingly advantageous in many more ways. On the one hand, because of its natural nature, biological intelligence is perhaps the only naturally occurring form of intelligent evolution; On the other hand, living organisms are certainly not the best carriers of information, limited by the physical-energy level of information activity. Regardless of what the future holds after Turing's Singularity, we have to think deeply about the relationship between intelligent robots and humans. The problem of the relationship between machines and people is, in the end, a problem of the relationship between people and technology, only that the problem focuses on intelligence.

Human progress is increasingly dependent on presuppositional reflections, Presuppositional reflections on past human, Just addressing your own perceptions、 thought、 Theories and ways of thinking and behaving, etc., And the emergence of super-artificial intelligence will involve even further presuppositional rethinking about the way humans themselves exist。 The essence of artificial intelligence evolution is information evolution, i.e., the hierarchical upgrading of infomercial development。 The primary form of intelligent evolution proceeds in the natural way of biological evolution, Its advanced form will involve the upgrading of information carriers。 Organisms are primary carriers of intelligence, With the development of intelligence, Higher levels of physical energy use will create more favorable conditions for smart development。 The upgrading of smart carriers is a natural consequence of the development of intelligence itself。

Smart Evolution's Carrier Upgrade, There are two possible ways: One is the independent parallel development of artificial intelligence and human intelligence vectors, As a result lower level biological carriers are at a disadvantage。 Second, biological carriers are constantly being partially replaced, Adopt an approach of progressive alternation of carriers。 The former approach does not have the advantages in terms of development history that the latter may have。 Because the evolution of self-aware information bodies is more a product of experience, Not just some kind of intelligence—— For example, the development of computing power, Computing power can be accomplished without a conscious body of information。 Thus a self-aware intelligence cannot replace the entire replacement vehicle at once, Rather, intelligence as a result of certain experiences in the form of appropriate upgrade vectors。 This approach is more likely to be incremental, That means that the more likely way for AI and human intelligence to develop is to interact。 That's a development of biological intelligence machinization and machine intelligence humanization, That is, some degree of human machinization and robotization。

Either way, the essence is information evolution. The development of artificial intelligence will thus be a continuation of human intelligence, rather than a surpassing and possible replacement or even elimination of human intelligence. Evolution is ultimately information evolution, and biological evolution is only the evolutionary process of information evolution as a carrier. The development of a higher level carrier based on physical energy means the elimination of human beings, but a higher level of intelligence based on information is a higher level of human development. Whereas the former sees population reproduction in the biological sense as the only means of human continuity, the latter sees reproduction in the ideological sense as a means of human continuity as well, and a more fundamental one.

The diversity of life is the lifeblood of ecology。 In the natural ecology, Diversity of living resources、 Difference as opposed to uniformity, Excessive uniformity as a mechanistic cause of ecological endgame。 Despite the fact that human beings are heavily involved in conflicts of interest, including for cultural reasons, But rational people have understood, The genetic diversity of organisms is not only the most important factor in adapting them to changes in the natural environment、 most fundamental resource, And it's grasping new possibilities、 Valuable asset for creating new objects。 Consensus on the protection of biological genetic resources, In having a true sense of superintelligence there understanding will only be deeper than that of the present human。

The ethics of science and technology must provide both an ethical warning of the threat that the development of artificial intelligence poses to human beings and, as artificial intelligence and human beings themselves develop, ethical support for the further development of human beings themselves.

forward (a shipment): China Social Science Network


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