（Wang Tianen： Professor, Shanghai University）
Back in the 1950s, Turing, the father of computer science and artificial intelligence, predicted that the development of artificial intelligence would reach a singularity beyond human evolution. And the direction of human civilization after the Singularity, between the two extreme views that AI is only an aid to humans and that it will bring about the end of humanity, there is a more realistic possibility that deserves our deeper consideration. There is no reason to think that intelligent evolution cannot occur in ways other than biological, only that there may be no other intelligent evolution that can occur in the natural way that biological evolution does. Since machine intelligence can only evolve with the help of human intelligence and on the basis of human intelligence, it is a kind of secondary evolution of intelligence. Machine intelligence is created by human intelligence, and the evolution of machine intelligence begins when artificial intelligence can be designed to have a higher level of intelligence than itself. However, although this is a secondary evolution based on the evolution of biological intelligence, it is possible that machine intelligence is a higher level of intelligence than human intelligence in terms of the form of intelligence and the way it evolves.