Lead undergraduate students in their thesis each year， all pain of。
The teacher told the student the basic methods of writing an essay, pointing him to where to look up information and read the paper. Full of expectation that he could get not only the research topic, content and information from the excellent papers in these core journals, but also learn the basic structure of the predecessors who wrote the articles, and complete the training for the undergraduate thesis by following the gourd.
But students often delay the deadline， I just started submitting the first draft.。 Teacher takes a look， It's all a rage.—— your Research methodology this (Cantonese)？ Where's the data?？ No analysis， How come there's a reason， There was even a suggestion？！
So the student was ordered to change. The student went to change it and got it back and it was still the same.
After a few rounds, the tired teacher decides that the student is not motivated to do the simple task of "drawing a picture of a cat". The children are unteachable.
This year I learned to reflect, which is said to be a valuable ability called "metacognition".
So I found it. pain the reasons for the—— Students lack basic skills training and hands-on beginner instructional tutorials。
The literature that teachers assign students to read (or journals are assigned for perusal) are good articles with masterful authors.
large Some of the undergraduate students， A beginner at writing essays。 Mr. Wu Jun said，” If the average level of American students' writing is80 a point (in sports or games)， Then the average level of Chinese students' writing is only30 a point (in sports or games)“。 You read that right.， In writing training， The difference is that significant。
Let's think about how basketball coaches teach beginners to play the game. Is it showing them NBA footage? Hopefully, after watching it, they'll master the most advanced basketball skills and be unbeatable at streetball from then on, or even make it to the NBA?
Watching NBA videos to learn to play basketball is more likely to turn a beginner into a basketball spectator (or even worse, into a basketball commentator). He'll think, "Oh, so you have to be over 2 meters tall to play basketball! So the main way to score a goal is a dunk! It still has to be a backhand snap ...... Forget it, I'm not playing."
Beginners should be under the guidance of an instructor， Start by dribbling in place， Gradual transition to mobile dribbling， And then a layup.、 shoot (in soccer, basketball etc)、 defense、 match…… Basic actions harmony Awareness is practiced.， Go practice against it again. harmony fight a match。
However, undergraduates writing papers is like watching a few NBA games without ever touching the ball and then being thrust onto the court to play an official game and the rules say you can't graduate if you can't score.
So they get anxious, procrastinate, and then start freaking out when they get to the deadline.
I remember they all had templates in hand. I asked for a copy to come over and realized that the template is all formatting specifications required on it. Something like, "Here in bold and five-point type".
They need a copy.
example， Not going to explain what font、 row spacing， Rather, a relatively complete essay writing presentation。 clear-cut steps、 simple and easy understand， It's best to also put a variety of large Mark all the holes.， Save yourself from falling in one by one.， And crawl out on your own.。
as to Research methodology and research paradigms， All disciplines are different。 Want to use a example Help to all undergraduate students， I don't have the power.。
Even considering only the field of management, research varies widely. The sample I did was an empirical study.
More than theoretical studies， Empirical studies don't appear to be that high large upper。 low threshold， Process Standards， It may not show your natural talent.。 But the good thing is that it's easy for beginners to grasp， have something to write about， And having mastered this method， More chances to publish in graduate school in the future。 a few days before， The editor-in-chief of one of the top management journals in China came to our university to give a lecture， A data is provided—— Papers published in the journal，80% It's all empirical research.。
The bar is low and the ceiling is high, so why not?
this one example in， I use the Research methodology It's a questionnaire.。 Because our majors love to send out questionnaires。 I myself came into the field of management halfway， sociological Research methodology Very little use， It's not funny to force the application of unfamiliar methods large fair and square。 It's just that if I take machine learning in this paper orAgent-based Modeling act as Research methodology model case， Probably scare the students away.。 In the application of specific methods， invite harmony Your mentor or teach you Research methodology、 The teachers of statistics communicate more， so as not to be misled。
Because it's not a formal study， merely example， So I didn't really post the questionnaire myself。 To ensure that the data is authentic and authoritative， I'm using open data from a country's census randomly sample。 Pay attention when you write your paper.， But you have to be realistic.， Say exactly who collected the data， Don't hide anything.。
this one example Not really a good paper.， Just one.”toy example”。 Not enough words， Lack of sufficient research value， moreover Study design Not good enough.。 Articles like this， Even trying to publish in the worst core journals is a delusion（ Some of them are in a hurry.， Copy everything.， We have a flaw in this article because， You can avoid being copied）。 nevertheless， What we need is simple and easy to understand。 The sparrow may be small but all its organs are there (idiom).， example The basic essay writing steps are complete in。 I've added notes to each section， A list of some common mistakes that beginners make all together。 I hope that students who need it will read it carefully。
If you are a professor with extensive mentoring experience, your criticism is welcome. I hope to iteratively improve this article and pass on the right basics to more students who need help. You are also welcome to help as many students as possible by providing your students with a simple sample of your own research area.
No need for name-calling.。 what?” How dare you call yourself a PhD at this level?？ How dare you come out and show yourself?？“” (of a lazy or incompetent teacher) hamper students' progress！ How can you do research like that?？“…… That's rather unkind.。 People who need to read this article， I can't hold a word in front of the screen.， The mind is in a fierce struggle， See if plagiarism is required、 plagiarize， Or simply the student who hired the shooter。 Your floor may be higher than their ceiling.。 Don't let the well-fed man know how hungry he is.。 this one example You may find it insulting to your intelligence when you read it， But as long as it's good for them， To enable them to bring their thesis to a successful conclusion through their own efforts， Good Mo large then。
Okay, enough chit-chat, let's get to the samples.
illustrate： example in， I use it“『” harmony“』” Bracketed text represents notes。 Actually, I think... large most of the time， Notes are more important than the text。 :-P
Survey on the association between frequency of newspaper reading and satisfaction with one's financial situation
『 title Limited number of words， Don't beat around the bush.。 Be sure to reflect the problem your paper will address。 Other people read it. title， You'll know if you want to read on。 So title Write honestly， Don't headline the party； But it's also attractive enough， At least let others not hate； If it stimulates the reader's interest in reading， That's better, of course。 If your school is more open-minded， Then you don't have to title It's so rigid。 Can be changed to《 Are people who like reading newspapers more satisfied with their financial situation?？》 and so on。 But my advice is on your graduation， It's better to be conservative。』
The age of the mobile Internet， People's reading is fragmented。 Reading newspapers seems to be more of a substitute for brushing a circle of friends。『 summary It needs to account for the background of the study， Give the reader a context， Highlight the significance of the problem in the context』 Is it beneficial to stick to the habit of reading newspapers?， is a subject of great interest to researchers。『 Explain what the problem is with the study， And according to your literature, the problem has attracted the attention of many researchers， Prove the necessity of your research harmony importance』 The questionnaire method was used in this study， This paper analyzes the relationship between newspaper reading habits and people's financial satisfaction。『 Explain your main Research methodology， and the variables analyzed， Let the reader have one for your research large expectations』 On the basis of the research findings, some suggestions are put forward for people's reading behavior。『 It's sublimation.， Your post if limited to rejecting or accepting a hypothesis， That's like doing a math problem.， Gained intellectual pleasure， But others look feel not as interesting as。 If it is reasonable to extend the research findings， Giving people guidance on how to behave， That's a lot better』
According to the XX Institute's 2017 Mobile Internet ...... Report", China's mobile Internet users now reach X billion people, the average daily online time of users ....... Just one app, XX, is opened XX.X times a day, with an average page dwell time of X minutes.
According to Agency XX's 2016 Media ...... Report, the change in the number of newspaper subscribers in the country is ...... People spend ...... hours a day reading newspapers
"Figures are used as a basis to illustrate the changing trends in different reading habits. People are getting a clear sense that they are spending more and more time on their phones and less and less time reading the newspaper. But with such solid statistics as a foundation, it still impresses the reader'
We have entered an era of reading fragmentation。 In this environment， People find it increasingly difficult to be interested harmony Read a thousand-word article patiently， Not to mention spending time reading newspapers( Zhang some, 2014)。
"The previous comparison leads to the phenomenon - fragmented reading, poor ability to read long texts, and the habit of reading newspapers is weakening. Note that if you just make a hasty statement like that, it will never work because you have no proof. After any assertive discourse, the source literature needs to be marked. Good research is using the literature to say what it has to say before getting to the main content, even bringing out literature with different perspectives to create conflict, grab the reader's attention, and provoke thought. 』
So, are the behavioral habits of reading newspapers beneficial to readers? "The question arises, and this is the study
large issue。 But don't try to solve your paper large issue， Because it contains too much content， It can't be measured。 What is called benefits？ There are many benefits。 It's good for your health？ Happier？ More sense of accomplishment？ More security？ More money？……』
In response to this problem， Many scholars have done research。Johnson(2010) The correlation between how often family members read newspapers and the number of quarrels between husband and wife is discussed，Smith harmonyMasterson(2013) This paper discusses the relationship between the frequency of reading newspapers and investment performance……『 Don't look for it， I have compiled these two documents。 You don't want to make it up， Be realistic and look for literature。 Tell us all about the important research related to reading newspapers， Tell someone“ The research I do is very important， You see， so much large Cows are working on this.！”， And then here's the key：』
Based on our combing of the available literature， No research findings have been found on the association between frequency of newspaper reading and satisfaction with one's financial situation。『 That must be said with humility. harmony tactful， There must also be room for。 Some of the students onCNKI Search the literature with Chinese keywords， I didn't look for it， Just say it“ Not yetXX research results， We have pioneered and addressed this issue”。 It's called a fight。 Have you read the English literature?？ Have you seen it all?？ Even if you look at it all， Did you see it in Japanese?？ What about Russian?？…… What you can't find doesn't mean you can't。』
The purpose of this study is to explore the correlation between newspaper reading frequency and financial satisfaction， And on that basis large Make suggestions for reading behavior。
Review of the literature
『 I'm not going to make a document here。 bibliography The search method with Review of the literature See the clumsy writing of《 Open-question report writing in vernacular》。 In particular, the World Wide One gang is recommended again《 Study with strength》 article。
But be careful， Some people like to speculate here。 Because check the paper、 It's hard to read a paper。 They don't want to put in the effort， But I'm going to pretend to be a book-goer。 So they'll take someone else's Review of the literature The chapter is here， East and West pieced together to try to get through。 The problem is that you have to understand that there is something in this world called a check-up system， The consequence of plagiarism is that the repetition rate increases dramatically in this section。 The results of the check are now recorded。 In the future, the relevant bad record will harmony Your personal integrity file system is connected。 You can't check your weight.， Not only will you be ordered by the school to revise and pay to recheck， And it will even be some years later， No bank will lend you money when you get a loan to buy a house。 Be prudent。
Others, a little better, have found some literature on their own. But simply not willing to take the time to read it in detail, I'll adjust the order of the excerpts from people's abstracts here. Even words like "this article" are brought in as they are. If you didn't know before, so be it. I'm telling you today, this is not going to work. The mentors and the defense committee were sensitive to this. You'll be given reasonable feedback on your grades. 』
"Finally, we have entered the main part of the study. You put a lot of effort into the first part, but those words don't
cannot Reflect your research. It's your stage from here on out. There may be a bunch of subheading names listed in the template here, but the two most important of them are. Research methodology harmony Data source』 Research methodology
In this paper, a questionnaire was used. "Some students think that the more research methods they write, the more knowledgeable they appear to be. So raw fabrications are made in various ways. Even the specific model choices below the statistical analysis are thrown up. Actually, no. An undergraduate thesis is a great success when you can put an appropriate research method to good use. The options available are very limited and do not win with more. 』
『 It adds later how your questionnaire was designed。 And don't forget， Put the complete blank questionnaire in appendix inside。 Otherwise God knows what you're asking。』
We used a random sample of a total of 8,000 questionnaires distributed nationwide, with 7,602 returned, a return rate of ...... The returned questionnaires were examined and 568 questionnaires were found to have missing values and the final number of valid questionnaires was 7034. "Note that in this
randomly The weight of the word sampling。 You have to be randomly sample， That's how you write it。 Many people use questionnaires to send questionnaires， WeChat red envelope please classmates harmony Fill in and forward with friends and family。 This near sampling or snowball sampling is not cannot use， But you really are cannot Impersonating randomly。』 Exploratory analysis
『 Called Exploratory analysis It's for good listening， In fact, for you as an undergraduate， The essence of this part is“ Descriptive statistics”。 You enter the data you collect into your computer， Then draw the distribution chart， Look at the picture and talk， Give us a basic picture of the data』
We collected it7034 A questionnaire is entered into the computer， useR Different variables are summarized harmony Visual analysis。
The distribution of the frequency of newspaper reading is as follows.
## Everyday Few Times A Week Once A Week Less Than Once Wk
## 3418 1519 693 537
"I will not add the title of the chart here for simplicity. You must add it yourself.
Of those we surveyed, 3,418 claimed to read the newspaper every day. This subgroup has the highest sample size. 537 rarely (less than once a week) read the newspaper and even more 867 declared that they did not read the newspaper at all.
Distribution of satisfaction with personal financial situation.
## Satisfied More Or Less Not At All Sat
## 3151 1869 2014
The highest number of people in the three subgroups were satisfied with their financial situation at 3,151, followed by those who were not satisfied at all at 2,014, and the lowest number of people who were more or less satisfied at 1,869.
We combine the two variables and plot the table.
## Satisfied More Or Less Not At All Sat
## Everyday 1525 710 1183
## Few Times A Week 696 445 378
## Once A Week 318 235 140
## Less Than Once Wk 223 190 124
## Never 389 289 189
From the figure, we can clearly see the 15 cells formed by the combination of different frequency of newspaper reading and satisfaction with personal financial situation. The area of the cell represents the number of people. "You can explore in more detail the details that feel new or interesting ...... I won't expand on that here. 』
『 Some students finished drawing the previous statistical graphics， I thought it was over large It's a good one。 That's not going to work， As an empirical research paper， You have to make assumptions， And take advantage of it statistical extrapolation to reject or accept it。 Only by doing this step， You have the bottom line to come up with some advice or countermeasures。』
Original hypothesis (H0): frequency of newspaper reading and satisfaction with financial position are independent of each other
Alternative hypothesis (HA): frequency of newspaper readings and satisfaction with financial position are not independent of each other
"Always remember that before you cheerfully run statistical results in R, SPSS, or even Excel, make sure you recall the statistics to see if your data meet the applicable prerequisites for a certain statistical method. 』
How often to read a newspaper harmony Financial satisfaction is all
classify (categorical) data. To discuss the relationship between the 2 categorical data, we need to use the chi-square independence test (chi-square test).
To use this test, we need to examine whether the data are eligible.
Condition I: Independence
at Data source part， We explained， This study was used randomly Sampling. A valid sample size of 7034, which is less than 10% of the total population of the country. Each sample can only appear in a particular cell in the classification table.
From the above three, it is clear that our data satisfy the independence condition.
Condition 2: Sample size
Inside each classification of the classification table, the number of samples is much greater than 5, thus meeting the sample size requirement.
Conditions one and two are satisfied simultaneously and the chi-square independence test applies.
The results of the operational tests are shown in the following table.
## Response variable: categorical (3 levels)
## Explanatory variable: categorical (5 levels)
## x Satisfied More Or Less Not At All Sat
## Everyday 1525 710 1183
## Few Times A Week 696 445 378
## Once A Week 318 235 140
## Less Than Once Wk 223 190 124
## Never 389 289 189
## x Satisfied More Or Less Not At All Sat
## Everyday 1531.1513 908.1948 978.6540
## Few Times A Week 680.4619 403.6126 434.9255
## Once A Week 310.4411 184.1366 198.4222
## Less Than Once Wk 240.5583 142.6860 153.7558
## Never 388.3874 230.3701 248.2425
## H0: news and satfin are independent
## HA: news and satfin are dependent
## chi_sq = 181.2194, df = 8, p_value = 0
The sample distribution is plotted against the chi-square distribution as.
Since the p-value is almost zero, we reject the original hypothesis and adopt the alternative hypothesis that "the frequency of newspaper reading and satisfaction with financial status are not independent of each other".
"We are studying a very simple topic in this thesis, and it is not enough to include action recommendations as a chapter. But if you study a slightly more complex problem and integrate it more closely with practice, this would be logical. 』
"Here you can make suggestions - for example, suggest reading more newspapers each week. But before making a suggestion please review your analysis again to see if that's the case. I know there is an expectation in your mind that people who can keep reading the newspaper have more perseverance and a higher capacity to ingest quality information, and therefore financially ...... That's why you should read more newspapers!
And wait, is that really true?
your statistical extrapolation base cannot drawn“ Read more newspapers-> Personal finances are good” such conclude。 Pay attention to logic。
First of all， What your statistics do is the relevant analysis， Instead of causal analysis。 If you want to do a causal analysis， Experiments must be designed， randomly Assign control group for comparison。 Correlation is not cause and effect， Don't ever do anything wrong.。
And, you just concluded that "frequency of newspaper reading and financial satisfaction are not independent of each other". What do you mean, not independent? It is the distribution between groups of financial status satisfaction that will differ depending on the frequency of reading the newspaper.
What's worse.， Let's review the previous classify fig
You'll find it turns out that as you read the newspaper more frequently, the percentage of people who are dissatisfied with their financial situation gets higher. In other words, the harder you read, the worse you feel!
What's the point of reading the newspaper then?
Wait, please note just
feel It's just bad. Here we do not get the actual income of the respondents. You make $5,000 a month and you think you can support yourself with $3,000, so you have a balance every month, so you'll be satisfied; you make $50,000 a month, but you can't move from the sight of luxury goods and you're moonlighting or even running a deficit every month, so I'm afraid you'll feel intensely dissatisfied with your financial situation.
Is being unhappy with your finances necessarily a bad thing?
Well, not necessarily. "Knowing inadequacy, one can then reflect on oneself; knowing distress, one can then strengthen oneself." Isn't it a good thing to rise to the occasion because of dissatisfaction with your financial situation?
So you see， The results of an analysis can be reasonably interpreted and extended from many angles。 But every point you say is found harmony Recommendations must be closely tied to their own analysis results。 cannot Take off the result， Talk to yourself。』
'Start with your research findings' This paper used a questionnaire to test the relationship between frequency of newspaper reading and satisfaction with financial status by means of a chi-square independence test, and the results of the study indicated that they were not independent.
"Then, there's your research limitations. Put here all those difficult questions that might be asked by the supervisors, reviewers and the defense committee' Due to time and human resources constraints, this study only did correlation tests and was not able to further examine the causal relationships between the different variables. "The undergraduate thesis is positioned to familiarize you with the process of scientific work, so the fact that you have not only produced results according to standardized methods, but have also been able to draw lessons from your practice, is also a reflection of having achieved your training goals. 』
『 Stand high， We've got to look ahead』 In future studies， We will further refine ours Study design， Experimental methods were used to explore the causal relationship between the frequency of reading newspapers and variables such as personal financial situation， To put forward more rational suggestions for people's reading behavior in the mobile Internet age。『 If you continue to study for a master's degree in the future， It's very sincere to write like this。 If you graduate, you'll go to work…… Write it and write it。』
"It is important that the references are in line with the criteria. Manual handling of references is not recommended. Reference lists can be generated automatically using a professional literature management tool such as Endnote. Not only does the formatting meet the requirements, but it is also very easy to modify to automatically adjust the serial number accordingly. 』
"Put your questionnaire here! 』
"Some students find templates from the internet and post them directly. Didn't even get the instructor's last name right. You'd think no one would read this part. Yes, you actually have a limited number of readers for your undergraduate thesis as well. But will your instructor look closely at this section? You guessed it. 』
The sample is written.
Hopefully, after you get this humble template, you can get an idea of the basic set of undergraduate thesis writing.
But it's no use just mastering the way。 Behind the success， Can not be separated from a solid kung fu。 Read the literature in a practical way、 Do your research with discipline、 You give yourself a serious and true thesis before you graduate large A good way to end your life。
Go for it!
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